Hope you are now able to set up the environment to start programming with STM32. If you have any questions or problems regarding our previous post (setting up the environment needed to begin with STM32) feel free to ask, because if you want to check your code in the real world that knowledge is a must.
Today, we will be looking at the key features of STM32CubeIDE and how a new project is created
1.Integration of STM32CubeMX that provides services for:
- Project creation and STM32 microcontroller and microprocessor selection
- Pinout, clock, peripheral, and middleware configuration
- Generation of the initialization code
2.Based on ECLIPSE™/CDT, with support of ECLIPSE™ add-ons, GNU C/C++ for Arm® toolchain and GDB debugger
3.Additional advanced debug features including:
- CPU core, peripheral register, and memory views
- Live variable watch view
- System analysis and real-time tracing (SWV)
- CPU fault analysis tool
4.Support of ST-LINK (STMicroelectronics) and J-Link (SEGGER) debug probes
5.Import project from Atollic® TrueSTUDIO® and AC6 System Workbench for STM32 (SW4STM32)
6.Multi-OS support: Windows®, Linux®, and macOS®, 64-bit versions only
Project creation and STM32 microcontroller and microprocessor selection
Workspace and project creation :
The first thing to be done when using CubeIDE is to create a project. Before that we will introduce you, the concept of workspace.
A workspace is a container that includes project folders or information about project folders, and a .metadata folder that contains information about the projects. A workspace is simply a folder on a hard drive, which can be located anywhere in the storage media. When STM32CubeIDE starts up, it asks which workspace must be used. This may be changed at any time by selecting [File]>[Switch Workspace] and navigating to another folder.
The easiest way to create a new embedded project is to use the STM32 Project wizard. It is selected through the [File]>[New]>[STM32 Project] menu command, and launches the embedded MCUFinder:
1 - Select the target MCU or board and click next (We have chosen STM32F103C8 MCU).
- This image shows you the target selection window. In light blue color in the upper left corner of this image, you can see now we are at the MCU/MPU selector tab.
As you can see in the picture below, now we are in the Board Selection tab.
2 - Enter a project name and select the setting wanted for the project in the dialogue boxes. Normally we use C++ as our targeted language.
3 - Click on [Finish] and a window as shown below will pop out in your computer. Just click [Yes] and you are done creating your project. By clicking Yes will bring up the STM32CubeMX perspective for configuring the peripherals, clock, middleware, and the power consumption.
Now, you have chosen your microcontroller/board and done creating a project.
Pinout, clock, peripheral, and middleware configuration
In the CubeMX perspective, there are mainly 4 tabs and now we’re in the Pinout & Configuration tab. As you can see in the left side of the following image, we have some dropdown lists under the Pinout & Configuration tab.
In this guide we’ll be using STLink to program our MCU. So that we have to select Serial Wire as our debugging method in CubeIDE.
To do that,
- Click SYS on the System Core drop down list.
- Chose Serial Wire from the Debug drop down list
Now, the two pins(SWDIO, SWCLK) needed to program your MCU using STLink have been configured automatically and you can see them in the Pinout view as in the following image.
If you are using a STM32 Board most probably there will be an external clock connected to your MCU. But if you are directly using a MCU, then there will be no external clock unless you have connected one. In both of these cases you need to know the clock rate of the clock you are using.
In our case(STM32F103C8 Board) we have an 8MHz external clock.
It should be mentioned that almost every STM32 MCU consists of an internal clock too. The reason we are using an external clock is to get a high precision clock.
You can configure your clock by following these steps.
Click RCC on the System Core drop down list.
Select Crystal/Ceramic Resonator from the High Speed Clock dropdown list
Next, Click on the Clock Configuration tab. In here you can see the clock tree of your MCU.
Input your clock frequency (In our case we didn’t change anything, default clock is 8MHz in STM32F103C8)
Change the PLL Source Mux selector to HSE so that you can use the external clock source.
Input the desired clock rate that you want to get. (For the demonstration purposes here we have use the maximum rate)
Note - When the clock rate is higher, the power consumption is also higher.
After completing these steps, you will get a pop up window like this. Just click [OK].
What happens here is CubeIDE software automatically configures the clock tree for your desired rates.
Now you can save your configurations by pressing [CTRL] + [S] or by clicking generate code in the Project tab.
You can generate your code anytime with no limitations(You will have to regenerate the code every time when you change any configuration parameter) .
Now the code has been generated for your configurations.
You can find the generated .h(header) files in Core -> Inc in the Project Explorer window and .c(source) files in Core -> Src in the Project Explorer window.
Blinking a LED using CubeIDE
If your pin configuration is not opened due to any reason, you can get it by double clicking [YOUR_PROJECT_NAME] .ioc file in the project explorer window.
In Bluepill, PC13 pin has a LED connected to it. Here what we gonna do is toggle that LED’s state so that LED will blink. When the state is LOW, LED will be lighted up and when the state is HIGH, the LED will be off.
As you can see in the following picture, first open your .ioc file so that you can see the pinout view. Then click on PC13. You will get a list like in the following picture. Click on GPIO_Output, so that PC13 pin will be configured as an output pin.
After that your pinout view will look like the following (Pin has been turned to green colour).
Now you have to generate the code again as we have mentioned earlier in this post.
Before moving further there’s an important thing that you must know. Like in Arduino programming you cannot just put your pin name in CubeIDE when you are dealing with GPIO pins. Normally in a MCU, pins are grouped into several ports for the ease of use(Port is a collection of several pins).
If we look at this PC13 pin, here the port is “PORT C” and the “13” is the pin number.
Now let’s begin with coding.
Find and double click on the main.c file to open it. [path - (Core -> Src -> main.c)]
You must remember another thing when coding in CubeIDE. You can only write code segments in between the space where it says USER CODE BEGIN and USER CODE END.
If you have written your code in other than these spaces, your written code will disappear when you generate your code again. See the following image if you are confused with this.
For this example, we will write our code segment in the while loop inside the main function. Write the following code sample in the CubeIDE.
Here, HAL_GPIO_TogglePin() function will change the state(HIGH or LOW) of the PC13 pin. This function needs two input parameters. They are the PORT and the PIN number of the GPIO(General Purpose Input Output) pin that you are using.
HAL_Delay() function will delay your program in milliseconds depending on the input you give to it. In this example it is 500 milliseconds.
Now you have to build your program to check whether there’s any error in your code. To do this just click on the “Hammer” icon in the toolbar or select [Projects]->[Build Project].
If there’s no error in your code, you are ready to upload your code onto your MCU.
Now connect your STM32 Board to the computer using a STLink.
Click on the bug icon(debugging) in the toolbar to upload your code. The following window will appear then. For now, just click OK and your code will be uploaded and a new perspective will be opened.
Click on the play button as outlined in the following picture, so that the code will start to run on your STM32 Board. And LED will start to blink.
Congratulations, now you have completed your first program in CubeIDE.
Way more to go. Cheers!